The measures at issue in this litigation relate to more than 300 separate cases of alleged subsidies by the European Communities and four of their Member States, namely France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, concerning large civilian aircraft (“LCA”) developed, manufactured and sold by the company now known as Airbus SAS. The measures that are the subject of the U.S. complaint can be categorized into five general categories: (i) “Launch Aid” or “Member State Financing” (LA/MSF); (ii) loans from the European Investment Bank; (iii) infrastructure and infrastructure subsidies; (iv) corporate restructuring measures; and (v) funding for research and technology development. The United States argues that each of the measures under attack constitutes a specific subsidy within the meaning of Articles 1 and 2 of the SCM Convention and that the European Communities and the four Member States, using these subsidies, have a negative effect on the interests of the United States within the meaning of Articles 5 and 6 of the SCM Convention. In addition, the United States argues that seven of the DE/MSF measures under attack are prohibited export subsidies under Article 3 of the SCM Convention. (a) 20% of total payments calculated under Article 4.2. The above payment is based on the supply of a number of aircraft corresponding to 40% of planned deliveries; 4.2. As soon as this agreement comes into force, the direct state assistance promised by one party to develop a new programme of civil aircraft or large-scale derivatives must not exceed: the advent of Airbus has transformed the market structure of the LCA industry into a duopoly of similar large assortments. The early financing of Airbus` capital expenditures came largely from public funds, which the United States said was contrary to the SCM agreement. The appellate body complies to a large extent, but does so in moderation: the category of illegal export subsidies is interpreted in order to manipulate normal market conditions; distortion of competition, not the increase in exports as such. Other aspects of grant law are the relationship between effect and subsidy.