Rousseau`s striking phrase that man must be “obliged to be free”[16] should be understood in this way: since indivisible and inalienable popular sovereignty decides what is good for the whole, an individual, if he falls back into his ordinary selfishness and does not obey the law, will be obliged to listen to what was decided when the people acted as collective (citizen). The law created by people acting as a body is therefore not a restriction of individual freedom, but rather its expression. The starting point of most theories of societal contracts is a study of the human condition without a political order (described by Thomas Hobbes as the “natural state”). [4] In this state, the individual`s actions are related only to his personal power and conscience. From this common starting point, social contract theorists try to demonstrate why rational individuals would willingly agree to give up their natural freedom in order to obtain the benefits of political order. Hugo Grotius (1625), Thomas Hobbes (1651), Samuel von Pufendorf (1673), John Locke (1689), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) and Immanuel Kantuel (1797) are close to the concept of political authority. Grotius claimed that individuals had natural rights. As you know, Thomas Hobbes said that in a “state of nature,” human life would be “lonely, poor, wicked, brutal and short.” Without political order and law, every person would have unlimited natural freedoms, including the “right to everything” and thus the freedom to plunder, rape and murder; There would be an endless “war of all against all” (bellum omnium contra omnes). To avoid this, free men unite to create, through a social contract, a political community (civil society) in which they obtain the security of all, in exchange for their submission to an absolute ruler, a man or an assembly of men. Although the sovereign`s decrees were arbitrary and tyrannical, Hobbes saw absolute government as the only alternative to the dreaded anarchy of a natural state. Hobbes claimed that people agreed to abdicate their rights in favour of the absolute authority of the government (whether monarchical or parliamentary).

Locke and Rousseau argued that in return, we get civil rights because they accept the obligation to respect and defend the rights of others, by giving up certain freedoms to do so.