and recognizing the need for increased efforts to address new and persistent threats to water quality and the health of Great Lakes ecosystems, including invasive aquatic species, excessive nutrients, harmful pollutants, ship releases, climate change and loss of habitat and species, This agreement will enter into force on December 18, 2014 and the parties recognize that , despite progress, the Great Lakes are currently exhibiting symptoms of human-in-activity stress in the basin and around the world; and considering that the parties reaffirm their determination to cooperate in the implementation of the Canada-U.S. Water Quality Agreement and to promote the environmental objectives of Ontario`s Great Lakes Strategy in a manner consistent with the vision and purpose of the agreement; and whereas, since 1971, the parties have collaborated through a series of agreements between Canada and Ontario that have guided their efforts to improve water quality and lake ecosystem health and helped fulfill Canada`s obligations under the Canada-United Lakes Water Quality Agreement; and recognizing that the Great Lakes region plays a key role in Canada`s physical, social and economic life, Ontario`s Great Lakes Basin accounts for 40% of the country`s economic activity, including about 25 per cent of Canada`s agricultural production and more than 75% of Canada`s production; and whereas the parties recognize that First Nations and Métis in the Great Lakes Basin value their spiritual and cultural relationships with the Great Lakes and that their traditional knowledge can support great Lakes restoration, protection and conservation efforts; and whereas the parties recognize that the restoration and improvement of water quality and the health of the Great Lakes ecosystem cannot be achieved by dealing in isolation with individual threats, but rather depends on the application of an ecosystem approach that addresses individually and cumulatively to all sources of stress for the Great Lakes; The Canada-Ontario Agreement on Great Lakes Water Quality and Ecosystem Health is the federal-federal agreement that supports the restoration and protection of the Great Lakes watershed ecosystem. The agreement outlines how the governments of Canada and Ontario will work together and coordinate their efforts to restore, protect and preserve the Great Lakes watershed ecosystem.